There is the executive branch, headed by the head of government and the council of ministers. The First Triumvirate ("three men"), had satisfied the interests of these three men: Crassus, the richest man in Rome, became richer; Pompey exerted more influence in the Senate; and Caesar held consulship and military command in Gaul.  The Treaty of St. Germain awarded the victorious Italian nation the Southern half of the County of Tyrol, Trieste, Istria, and the city of Zadar. Italy Profile ; History ; News and Current Events ; Italy Becomes a Unified Peninsula .  From the 10th to the 13th centuries these cities built fleets of ships both for their own protection and to support extensive trade networks across the Mediterranean, leading to an essential role in the Crusades. Mussolini promised to bring Italy back as a great power in Europe, building a "New Roman Empire" and holding power over the Mediterranean Sea. Culturally, food preparation was quite important in the past where flashes of significance have been captured in the only surviving cookbook (Apicius), which dates back to the first century BC. A more recent study has suggested a Near Eastern origin. Berlusconi won the general election in 2008, with the People of Freedom party (fusion of his previous Forza Italia party and of Fini's National Alliance) against Walter Veltroni of the Democratic Party. According to tradition and later writers such as Livy, the Roman Republic was established around 509 BCE, when the last of the seven kings of Rome, Tarquin the Proud, was deposed by Lucius Junius Brutus, and a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established. Crassus had acted as mediator between Caesar and Pompey, and, without him, the two generals began to fight for power. The most important magistrates were the two consuls, who together exercised executive authority as imperium, or military command. However Stalinism was a powerful political force. Friction continued over the Catholic Action youth network, which Mussolini wanted to merge into his Fascist youth group.  In antiquity, Italy was the homeland of the Romans and the metropole of the Roman Empire. Other original elements of the Sardinian civilization include the temples known as "Sacred Pits", perhaps dedicated to the holy water related to the Moon and astronomical cycles, the Giants' graves, the Megaron temples, several structures for juridical and leisure functions, and some refined statuettes. The Gauls destroyed much of Rome's historical records when they sacked the city after the Battle of the Allia in 390 BCE (Varronian, according to Polybius the battle occurred in 387/6) and what was left was eventually lost to time or theft. Islamic rule over Sicily was effective from 902, and the complete rule of the island lasted from 965 until 1061. While I learned a great deal, I was particularly struck by the contrast between Italy's age old, and varied culture and its relatively youthful status as a unified country; first unified in 1861. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BCE by twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas and who were grandsons of the Latin King, Numitor of Alba Longa. The migration west into Italy of intellectuals fleeing the crumbling Eastern Roman Empire at this time also played a significant part. In America on the other hand, a carpenter who worked a 56-hour week would earn $18. In the south, the Normans occupied the Lombard and Byzantine possessions, ending the six century old presence of both powers in the peninsula.. History, map and timeline of Italy in 1789. In the 1970s Italy saw an unexpected escalation of political violence. Italy during that time prospered as the largest exporter of wine in Europe but following the recovery of France in 1888, southern Italy was overproducing and had to split in two which caused greater unemployment and bankruptcies. For the next seven centuries, until the barbarian invasions destroyed the western Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D., the history of Italy is largely the history of Rome. At the time Italy had about 2,500 military aircraft in service. On 28 October, Mussolini launched an attack on Greece without consulting Hilter, who was informed of the invasion Greco-Italian War by reading about it in the morning newspaper and was furious. The new society, whose motto was "God and the People," sought the unification of Italy. The Piedmont revolt started in Alessandria, where troops adopted the green, white, and red tricolore of the Cisalpine Republic. More than four-fifths of Italy’s energy requirements are imported. Crispi's major concerns before during 1887–91 was protecting Italy from Austria-Hungary. Both radical and conservative forces in the Italian parliament demanded that the government investigate how to improve agriculture in Italy. Inspired by the principles of the French Revolution, its members were mainly drawn from the middle class and intellectuals. Caesar reconciled the two more powerful men in Rome: Marcus Licinius Crassus, his sponsor, and Crassus' rival, Pompey. By this time Rome was a consolidated empire – in the military view – and had no major enemies. The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy after 800 BCE. In 1938, under influence of Hitler, Mussolini supported the adoption of anti-semitic racial laws in Italy. Letta's cabinet lasted until 22 February 2014 (for a total of 300 days), as the government fell apart after the Democratic Party retired its support of Letta in favour of Matteo Renzi, the 39-year-old mayor of Florence and nicknamed "Il Rottamatore" (The scrapper), who succeeded Letta as Prime Minister at the head of a new government with three centre parties, New Centre-Right, Civic Choice and Union of the Centre. As no dominant powers emerged as they did in other parts of Europe, the oligarchic city-state became the prevalent form of government. Between those two periods may have been a millennium and a half of division and disruption, but that disruption saw one of the world's great flowering of art, the Renaissance (circa 1400–1600 CE). After the Battle of Actium, the period of major naval battles was over and the Romans possessed unchallenged naval supremacy in the North Sea, Atlantic coasts, Mediterranean, Red Sea, and the Black Sea until the emergence of new naval threats in the form of the Franks and the Saxons in the North Sea, and in the form of Borani, Herules and Goths in the Black Sea. Their effective use is still debated: some scholars considered them as fortresses, others as temples. What is happening in Italy in 1837CE.  Mussolini was repulsed by the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreement where Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to partition the Second Polish Republic into German and Soviet zones for an impending invasion. The intense regionality of Italy (which shows its face in things like cuisine, language and art) has its roots in the long history of city-states which preceded the unification of Italy in the 19th century. Index.  Augustus' enlightened rule resulted in a 200 years long peaceful and thriving era for the Empire, known as Pax Romana. After Russia, the other states of Europe re-allied themselves and defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig, after which his Italian allied states, with Murat first among them, abandoned him to ally with Austria. Instead of uniting against the invaders the Italian states split into two factions supporting either France or Spain. The Germans brought Mussolini to northern Italy where he set up a Fascist puppet state, the Italian Social Republic. Renaissance politics developed from this background. However, Spain attempted again to retake territories in Italy and to claim the French throne in the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720), but was again defeated. The first was a continuation of the foreign-policy objectives of the preceding Liberal regime. It also has a legislative power, under the responsibility of the Council of Ministers and the Parliament. Along with Maecenas, he stimulated patriotic poems, as Vergil's epic Aeneid and also historiographical works, like those of Livy. Some of these cities still exist (including Arezzo, Chiusi, Cortona, Perugia, and Cerveteri). This decision angered the Fascist regime. ", Antonio Carlo, "Against the 'Southern Question'" (1974), Luigi Tomassini, "Industrial Mobilization and the labour market in Italy during the First World War,", The Fascist Experience by Edward R. Tannenbaum, p. 22, James J. Sadkovich, "Understanding Defeat: Reappraising Italy's Role in World War II,", Jon E. Lewis (1999), The Mammoth Book of True War Stories, p. 318, Francesca Fauri, "The Role of Fiat in the Development of the Italian Car Industry in the 1950s". In 1928, all political parties were banned, and parliamentary elections were replaced by plebiscites in which the Grand Council of Fascism nominated a single list of 400 candidates. In Northern Italy, industrialisation and modernisation began in the last part of the 19th century. On June 11 , 1940 , the Italian air force attacked Malta, while, on the same day, British planes carried out a small bombing raid on the Italian colony of Eritrea (in Africa) as well as on the Italian cities of Genoa and Turin. The Fascist regime engaged in interventionist foreign policy in Europe. Rome was a city largely in ruins, and the Papal States were a loosely administered region with little law and order. Since 49 BC they had been Roman citizens. Hesitance remained from the King and military commander Pietro Badoglio who warned Mussolini that Italy had too few tanks, armoured vehicles, and aircraft available to be able to carry out a long-term war and Badoglio told Mussolini "It is suicide" for Italy to get involved in the European conflict. In 1130, Roger II of Sicily began his rule of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. The first battles came on 9 April, between the French and the Piedmontese, and within only two weeks Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia was forced to sign an armistice. Many leading revolutionaries wanted a republic, but eventually it was a king and his chief minister who had the power to unite the Italian states as a monarchy. The natural environment was constantly under threat by wild industrial expansion, leading to ecological disasters like the Vajont Dam inundation and the Seveso chemical accident. Old houses of the Alberobello region in Bari, Italy have “trulli” or conical roofs with grey stones and … Italy is a country located in Western Europe. Florence took Pisa in 1406, Venice captured Padua and Verona, while the Duchy of Milan annexed a number of nearby areas including Pavia and Parma. Octavius (Caesar's adopted son), along with general Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Caesar's best friend, established the Second Triumvirate. Barlaam was a master in Greek and was the initial teacher to Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio of the language. Meanwhile, the Allies advanced in southern Italy. Italy also suffered economically because of overproduction of grapes for their vineyards in the 1870s and 1880s when France's vineyard industry was suffering from vine disease caused by insects. After Germany annexed Czechoslovakia in March 1939, Mussolini decided to occupy Albania to avoid becoming second-rate member of the Axis. Italy soon conquered and annexed Tripoli and the Dodecanese Islands. How Italian society built mechanisms to adapt, translate, resist, and domesticate this challenge had a lasting effect on the nation's development over the subsequent decades. On 9 June 1944 he was replaced as Prime Minister by the 70-year-old anti-fascist leader Ivanoe Bonomi. Di Santarosa's troops were defeated, and the would-be Piedmontese revolutionary fled to Paris. and emerged as a political entity with its own rulers. in 68 CE the year of the four emperors) demanded the legions' attention on several occasions. However, the history of the Roman Kingdom began with the city's founding, traditionally dated to 753 BCE with settlements around the Palatine Hill along the river Tiber in Central Italy, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic in about 509 BCE. The history of Italy is characterized by two periods of unity—the Roman Empire (27 BCE–476 CE) and the modern democratic republic formed after the end of World War II. A Brief Look at Italy's History of Division Roman Empire. Even among those who wanted to see the peninsula unified into one country, different groups could not agree on what form a unified state would take. In 1925, Italy forced Albania to become a de facto protectorate. In 1805, he formed the Kingdom of Italy, with himself as king and his stepson as viceroy. The peninsula again becomes a political entity, as the modern nation of Italy, in 1861. The Fascist regime held negative relations with Yugoslavia, as it continued to claim Dalmatia. , A few years later, in 474 BC, Syracuse's tyrant Hiero defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae. The conquest of Hispania was completed in 19 BC—but at heavy cost and severe losses. On land, decades of fighting saw Florence, Milan and Venice emerge as the dominant players, and these three powers finally set aside their differences and agreed to the Peace of Lodi in 1454, which saw relative calm brought to the region for the first time in centuries. Mussolini elicited emotional responses unique in modern Italian history, and kept his popularity despite the military reverses after 1940. Approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been identified. What is happening in Italy in 1789CE. The Palatine Hill and hills surrounding it presented easily defensible positions in the wide fertile plain surrounding them. , The overwhelming attention paid to foreign policy alienated the agricultural community which needed help. Days later on 2 May 1945, the German forces in Italy surrendered. On 7 April 1939, Italy invaded Albania. Giolitti believed that the Fascists could be toned down and used to protect the monarchy from the socialists. They were Barlaam of Seminara and his disciple Leonzio Pilato of Seminara. In 1866, Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck offered Victor Emmanuel II an alliance with the Kingdom of Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War. This situation was partially reversed when, in 1734, the Spanish Bourbons received Naples and Sicily (the kingdom of the Two Sicilies). In that year, he took the name Augustus. At the Battle of Aquae Sextiae and the Battle of Vercellae the Germans were virtually annihilated, which ended the threat. A war between Austria and France in 1859 allowed several small states to merge with Piedmont; a tipping point had been reached and the Kingdom of Italy was formed in 1861, growing by 1870—when the Papal States joined—to cover almost all of what we now call Italy. ... landscape painting and the depiction of history; three art-historical achievements that were used consequently by the emperors to show off the fame and glory of their reign. He was murdered in 44 BCE, in the Ides of March by the Liberatores. Following its war declaration, Italy made its first moves in North Africa and other regions of the southern Mediterranean. By Tim Lambert. The new Kingdom of Italy, established in 1861, quickly modernized and built a large colonial empire, colonizing parts of Africa, and countries along the Mediterranean. The poets of the north adopt a less flowery style, using simple Italian to express the emotion of love. In addition, a large Italian resistance movement started a long guerrilla war against the German and Fascist forces. Crawley, ed. The Roman Republic then unified Italy at the expense of the Etruscans, Celts, and Greeks of the peninsula. Their works include Florence Cathedral, St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, and the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini. After the Revolutions of 1848, the apparent leader of the Italian unification movement was Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi. With his sole preeminence over Rome, Caesar gradually accumulated many offices, eventually being granted a dictatorship for perpetuity. , Around 540 BCE, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean Sea. There can be no disputing that the achievement of all the Italian units, especially the motorised elements, far outstripped any action of the Italian Army for 100 years. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily lasted until 1194 when Sicily was claimed by the German Hohenstaufen Dynasty. Under Augustus's rule, Roman literature grew steadily in the Golden Age of Latin Literature. By 1950, the economy had largely stabilized and started booming. In 1923, Mussolini's coalition passed the electoral Acerbo Law, which assigned two thirds of the seats to the party that achieved at least 25% of the vote. The Monster of Florence Douglas Preston. In World War I, Italy joined the Entente with France and Britain, despite having been a member of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and gave a fundamental contribution to the victory of the conflict as one of the principal allied powers. El Alamein was a battle that was lost with great honour, facing up to overwhelmingly superior firepower with poor weapons but with great spirit and capacity to resist and to hold up high the honour of Italy". In September 1943, Naples rose against the occupying German forces. About the same time in the 8th century BCE, a small agricultural community was forming on the west coast of Italy. History Few countries have been on such a roller-coaster ride as Italy. Definition and Examples, Countries in Africa Considered Never Colonized, What Is Totalitarianism? The 1840 version of I Promessi Sposi used a standardized version of the Tuscan dialect, a conscious effort by the author to provide a language and force people to learn it. Lesson Summary. Discontent was high in rural areas since so many men were taken for service, industrial jobs were unavailable, wages grew slowly and inflation was just as bad..  However, after a failed constitutional referendum, Italy entered a period of political instability culminating in a general election that resulted in a hung parliament and the subsequent formation of the first populist government in Western Europe. Italy is a democratic republic and is a founding member of the European Union. The Western part faced increasing economic and political crisis and frequent barbarian invasions, so the capital was moved from Mediolanum to Ravenna. Public appearances and propaganda constantly portrayed the closeness of Mussolini and Hitler and the similarities between Italian Fascism and German National Socialism. The Etruscans built cities on a grid pattern. On 15 May the French general then entered Milan, where he was welcomed as a liberator. The Italian Navy committed 91 warships and submarines and sank 72,800 tons of Republican and neutral shipping. Its official name is Repubblica Italiana. Many leaders of the unification movement were at one time members of this organization. In all other periods of prehistory and history this most desirable of territories has been shared and fought over by numerous rival groups. Duggan argues that his regime exploited Mussolini's appeal and forged a cult of personality that served as the model that was emulated by dictators of other fascist regimes of the 1930s..  Of course, there had to be some basis for singling out the South like Italy did. Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia had for some time been under foreign domination. The Italian trade routes that covered the Mediterranean and beyond were major conduits of culture and knowledge. As Tangentopoli was under a set of judicial investigations by the name of Mani pulite (Italian for "clean hands"), voters demanded political, economic, and ethical reforms. At the end of the Lead years, the PCI gradually increased their votes thanks to Enrico Berlinguer. Italy is a country in south-central Europe. The assassination of the leader of the Christian Democracy (DC), Aldo Moro, led to the end of a "historic compromise" between the DC and the Communist Party (PCI). Mark Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, leaving Octavianus the sole ruler of the Republic. Milan, Florence and Venice, as well as several other Italian city-states, played a crucial innovative role in financial development, devising the main instruments and practices of banking and the emergence of new forms of social and economic organization.. " Historians have long debated why Italy's military and its Fascist regime were so remarkably ineffective at an activity – war – that was central to their identity.  Emigration was especially directed to the factories of the so-called "industrial triangle", a region encompassed between the major manufacturer centers of Milan and Turin and the seaport of Genoa. On 24 and 25 February 2013 a new election was held; the centre-left coalition of Pier Luigi Bersani, leader of the Democratic Party, win a majority in the Chamber of Deputies but not in the Senate. Vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under rulership of the Pope. 800 BC. The most important cultural transplant was the Chalcidean/Cumaean variety of the Greek alphabet, which was adopted by the Etruscans; the Old Italic alphabet subsequently evolved into the Latin alphabet, which became the most widely used alphabet in the world. The Republic saw its fall after the assassination of Dictator Julius Caesar. The insurrection reached its peak mainly in Basilicata and northern Apulia, headed by the brigands Carmine Crocco and Michele Caruso.  In the elections, the Fascists did not make large gains, but Giolitti's government failed to gather a large enough coalition to govern and offered the Fascists placements in his government. Strong urban growth led to uncontrolled urban sprawl.  This was important to the alliance as both regimes mutually had claims on France, Germany on German-populated Alsace-Lorraine and Italy on the mixed Italian and French populated Nice and Corsica. The kingdom also had established important alliances which helped it improve the possibility of Italian unification, such as Britain and France in the Crimean War.  Italian rates of growth were second only, but very close, to the German rates, in Europe, and among the OEEC countries only Japan had been doing better. Frederick Artz emphasizes the benefits the Italians gained from the French Revolution: The Risorgimento was the political and social process that unified different states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. Mussolini felt obliged to sign the pact in spite of his own concerns that Italy could not fight a war in the near future. Tuscan architecture and painting soon became a model for all the city-states of northern and central Italy, as the Tuscan variety of Italian language came to predominate throughout the region, especially in literature. Inflation doubled the cost of living. Ferdinand abolished the constitution and began systematically persecuting known revolutionaries. The only nation to back Italy's aggression was Nazi Germany. Around 800 B.C. In 751 the Lombards seized Ravenna, ending Eastern Roman rule in central Italy. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Greeks, Etruscans, and Celts have inhabited the Italian Peninsula, with various Italic peoples dispersed throughout Italy alongside other ancient Italian tribes and Greek, Carthaginian, and Phoenician colonies. This article is about Italian military operations in World War I. The king's regent, prince Charles Albert, acting while the king Charles Felix was away, approved a new constitution to appease the revolutionaries, but when the king returned he disavowed the constitution and requested assistance from the Holy Alliance. During the Copper Age, Indoeuropean people migrated to Italy. For six months Italy remained neutral, as the Triple Alliance was only for defensive purposes. Officially, the government was republican, but Augustus assumed absolute powers. Proto-villanovans practised cremation and buried the ashes of their dead in pottery urns of distinctive double-cone shape. History of Italy: A Captivating Guide to Italian History, Starting from the First Settlements through the Middle Ages to the Modern Period Captivating History. Italy entered the war with an army of 875,000 men, but the army was poorly led and lacked heavy artillery and machine guns, their war supplies having been largely depleted in the war of 1911–12 against Turkey. 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